2. Frost flowers: ice crystals commonly found growing on young sea ice and thin lake ice in extremely cold, calm conditions nearing -22C or -7.6F.
3. Light pillars: an optical phenomenon formed by the reflection of sunlight or moonlight by ice crystals that are present in the Earth’s atmosphere.
4. Bioluminescent dinoflagellates + the right conditions = Red Tide: a condition where the dinoflagellates become so numerous that the water takes on a muddy reddish colour.
5. Bioluminescent waves on a beach in the Maldives: Various species of phytoplankton are known to bioluminesce; when washed ashore by the tides, their chemical energy is turned into light energy.
6. Canada’s saline endorheic alkali Spotted Lake: contains some of the highest quantities of magnesium sulfate, calcium and sodium sulphates in the world.
7. Tanzania’s Lake Natron: a salt lake fed by mineral-rich hot springs that is the only regular breeding area in East Africa for the 2.5 million lesser flamingoes.
8. Undulatus asperatus aka “roughened or agitated waves”: This cloud formation has been proposed as a separate cloud classification by the founder of the Cloud Appreciation Society and would be the first new type of cloud recognised since 1951.
9. Polar stratospheric clouds: also known as nacreous clouds (from nacre, or mother of pearl, due to their iridescence).
10. Mammatus clouds, aka “mammary clouds” or “breast clouds”: a meteorological term applied to a rare pattern of pouches hanging underneath the base of a cloud.
11. Lenticular clouds over Mount Olympus: stationary lens-shaped clouds that form in the troposphere. Because of their shape, they have been offered as an explanation for some UFO sightings.
12. The Flowering Desert: occurs in the Atacama Desert, Chile, in years when rainfall is unusually high. Normally the region receives less than 12mm of rain annually.
13. The Black Sun: Huge flocks of up to 50,000 starlings form in areas of the UK just before sundown during mid-winter. They are known as murmurations.
14. The Great Blue Hole: a large submarine sinkhole off the coast of Belize, over 300m across and 124m deep.
16. Underwater crop circles in the ocean off Japan: created by a male pufferfish in order to woo females.
17. Namibia’s mysterious Fairy Circles: Studies suggest that a sand termite is responsible for their creation.
18. Monarch butterflies: The eastern North American population is notable for its southward late summer/autumn migration from the USA and Canada to Mexico, covering thousands of kilometers.
19. Christmas Island’s Red Crabs: Each year an estimated 43 million land crabs migrate to lay their eggs in the ocean.
20. The Catumbo Lightning, which occurs during 140 to 160 nights a year, 10 hours per night and up to 280 times per hour.
22. The Door to Hell, a gas fire in Turkmenistan accidentally ignited by scientists in 1971 and still burning.
23. Dirty thunderstorms, aka volcanic lightning, occur when lightning is produced in a volcanic plume.
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